News – Model Standards 2008 for Caravan Sites in England

Model Standards 2008 for Caravan Sites in England
Caravan Sites and Control of Development Act 1960 – Section 5

Model Standards 2008 for Caravan Sites in England
Caravan Sites and Control of Development Act 1960 – Section 5

April 2008
Department for Communities and Local Government: London

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April 2008

Product Code: 08 LPH 05217

ISBN: 978 1 8511 29089

Introduction
1.     Under section 5(6) of the Caravan Sites and Control of Development Act 1960 (the Act) the Secretary of State may from time to time specify model standards with respect to the lay-out and the provision of facilities, services and equipment for caravan sites or particular types of caravan site; and that, in deciding what (if any) conditions to attach to a site licence, the local authority shall have regard to any standards so specified.
2.     These standards only apply to those sites which contain caravans that are used as permanent residential units. They do not apply to sites used exclusively for holidays or touring caravan sites (for which separate model standards have been issued). The standards also do not apply to sites occupied by gypsies or travellers or caravan sites which house agricultural workers.
3.     These standards should be considered when applying licence conditions to new sites and sites that have been substantially redeveloped. In considering variations to existing site licences or applications for new site licences for existing sites local authorities should consider whether it is appropriate for these standards to apply. In relation to variation of a licence the local authority must consult the site licence holder on its proposed variations and may wish to consult with residents or a Residents’ Association, where appropriate. Where a current licence condition is adequate in serving its purpose, the authority should not normally apply the new standard. Where it is appropriate to apply the new standard to a condition the local authority should be able to justify its reasons for doing so, having regard to all the relevant circumstances of the site. In deciding whether to apply a new standard the local authority must have regard to the benefit that the standard will achieve and the interests of both residents and site owners (including the cost of complying with the new or altered condition).
4.     The model standards represent those standards normally to be expected as a matter of good practice on caravan sites. They should be applied with due regard to the particular circumstances of the relevant site, including its physical character, any relevant services, facilities or other amenities that are available within or in the locality of the site and other applicable conditions.
5.     The annex to this document provides advice on the application and enforcement of the model standards when considering attaching conditions to licences.

6.     In the model standards any references to “site” includes a park home site (including a mobile home site) and to “caravan” includes a mobile or park home.
7.     This document should be referred to as Model Standards 2008 for Caravan Sites in England.
Previous Standards
8.     The 2008 Standards replace the document “Model Standards 1989: Permanent Residential Mobile Homes Sites”. When issuing any new licences or reviewing current ones the local authority must have regard to the 2008 Standards in setting or varying any of the conditions attached.

THE STANDARDS
1. The Boundaries and Plan of the Site
(i)    The boundaries of the site from any adjoining land shall be clearly marked by a man made or natural feature.
(ii)    No caravan or combustible structure shall be positioned within 3 metres of the boundary of the site.
(iii)    (a)    A plan of the site shall be supplied to the local authority upon the application for a licence and, thereafter whenever there is a material change to the boundaries or layout of the site, or at any other time on the demand of the local authority.
(b)    The plan supplied must clearly illustrate the layout of the site including all relevant structures, features and facilities on it and shall be of suitable quality.
2. Density, Spacing and Parking Between Caravans
(i)    Except in the case mentioned in sub paragraph (iii) and subject to sub paragraph (iv), every caravan must where practicable be spaced at a distance of no less than 6 metres (the separation distance) from any other caravan which is occupied as a separate residence.
(ii)    No caravan shall be stationed within 2 metres of any road or communal car park within the site or more than 50 metres from such a road within the site.
(iii)    Where a caravan has retrospectively been fitted with cladding from Class 1 fire rated materials to its facing walls, then the separation distance between it and an adjacent caravan may be reduced to a minimum of 5.25 metres.
(iv)    In any case mentioned in subparagraph (i) or (iii):
(a)    A porch attached to the caravan may protrude one metre into the separation distance and must not exceed 2 metres in length and 1 metre in depth. The porch must not exceed the height of the caravan. Where a porch is installed only one door may be permitted at that entrance to the home, either on the porch or on the home.

(b)    Eaves, drainpipes and bay windows may extend into the separation distance provided the total distance between the extremities of two facing caravans is not less than 5 metres, except where sub paragraph (iii) applies in which case the extension into the separation distance shall not exceed 4.25 metres.
(c)    Any structure including steps, ramps, etc (except a garage or car port), which extends more than 1 metre into the separation distance shall be of non-combustible construction. There should be a 4.5 metre clear distance between any such structure and any adjacent caravan.
(d)    A garage or car port may only be permitted within the separation distance if it is of non-combustible construction.
(e)    Windows in structures within the separation distance shall not face towards the caravan on either side.
(f)    Fences and hedges, where allowed and forming the boundary between adjacent caravans, should be a maximum of 1 metre high.
(g)    Private cars may be parked within the separation distance provided that they do not obstruct entrances to caravans or access around them and they are a minimum of 3 metres from an adjacent caravan.
(v)    The density of caravans on a site shall be determined in accordance with relevant health and safety standards and fire risk assessments.
3. Roads, Gateways and Overhead Cables
(i)    Roads shall be designed to provide adequate access for emergency vehicles and routes within the site for such vehicles must be kept clear of obstruction at all times.
(ii)    New roads shall be constructed and laid of suitable bitumen macadem or concrete with a suitable compacted base.
(iii)    All roads shall have adequate surface water/storm drainage.
(iv)    New two way roads shall not be less than 3.7 metres wide, or if they are designed for and used by one way traffic, not less than 3 metres wide.
(v)    One-way systems shall be clearly signposted.
(vi)    Where existing two way roads are not 3.7 metres wide, passing places shall be provided where practical.
(vii)    Vehicular access and all gateways to the site must be a minimum of 3.1 metres wide and have a minimum height clearance of 3.7 metres.

(viii)    Roads shall be maintained in a good condition.
(ix)    Cable overhangs must meet the statutory requirements.
4. Footpaths and Pavements
(i)    Every caravan shall be connected to a road by a footpath with a hard surface which shall be maintained in good condition.
(ii)    Where practicable, communal footpaths and pavements shall not be less than 0.9 metres wide.
5. Lighting
Roads, communal footpaths and pavements shall be adequately lit between dusk and dawn to allow the safe movement of pedestrians and vehicles around the site during the hours of darkness.
6. Bases
(i)    Every unit must stand on a concrete base or hard-standing.
(ii)    The base must extend over the whole area occupied by the unit, and must project a sufficient distance outwards from its entrance or entrances to enable occupants to enter and leave safely. The hard standings must be constructed to the industry guidance, current at the time of siting, taking into account local conditions.
7. Maintenance of Common Areas, including Grass, Vegetation and Trees
(i)    Every part of the site to which the public have access shall be kept in a clean and tidy condition.
(ii)    Every road, communal footpath and pavement on the site shall be maintained in a good condition, good repair and clear of rubbish.
(iii)    Grass and vegetation shall be cut and removed at frequent and regular intervals.
(iv)    Trees within the site shall (subject to the necessary consents) be maintained.
(v)    Any cuttings, litter or waste shall be removed from the immediate surrounds of a pitch.

8. Supply & Storage of Gas etc
(i)    Gas (including natural gas) and oil installations, and the storage of supplies shall meet current statutory requirements, relevant Standards and Codes of Practice.
(ii)    Liquefied Petroleum Gas cylinders must not be positioned or secured in such a way as to impede access or removal in the event of an emergency.
9. Electrical Installations
(i)    On the site there shall be installed an electricity network of adequate capacity to meet safely all reasonable demands of the caravans and other facilities and services within it.
(ii)    The electrical network installations shall be subject to regulation under current relevant legislation and must be designed, installed, tested, inspected and maintained in accordance with the provisions of the current relevant statutory requirements.
(iii)    Any work on electrical installations and appliances shall be carried out only by persons who are competent to do the particular type of work being undertaken, in accordance with current relevant statutory requirements.
(iv)    Any work on the electrical network within the site shall be done by a competent person fully conversant with the appropriate statutory requirements.
10. Water Supply
(i)    All pitches on the site shall be provided with a water supply sufficient in all respects to meet all reasonable demands of the caravans situated on them.
(ii)    All new water supplies shall be in accordance with all current legislation, regulations and relevant British or European Standards.
(iii)    All repairs and improvements to water supplies and installations shall be carried out to conform with current legislation and British or European Standards.
(iv)    Work on water supplies and installations shall be carried out only by persons who are qualified in the particular type of work being undertaken and in accordance with current relevant legislation and British or European Standards.

11. Drainage and Sanitation
(i)    Surface water drainage shall be provided where appropriate to avoid standing pools of water.
(ii)    There shall be satisfactory provision for foul and waste water drainage either by connection to a public sewer or sewage treatment works or by discharge to a properly constructed septic tank or cesspool approved by the local authority.
(iii)    All drainage and sanitation provision shall be in accordance with all current legislation and British or European Standards.
(iv)    Work on drains and sewers shall be carried out only by persons who are qualified in the particular type of work being undertaken and in accordance with current legislation and British or European standards.
12. Domestic Refuse Storage & Disposal
(i)    Where communal refuse bins are provided these shall be non-combustible and housed within a properly constructed bin store.
(ii)    All refuse disposal shall be in accordance with all current legislation and regulations.
13. Communal Vehicular Parking
Suitably surfaced parking spaces shall be provided to meet the requirements of residents and their visitors.
14. Communal Recreation Space
On sites where it is practical to do so, suitable space equivalent to about one tenth of the total area of the site shall be allocated for recreational purposes, unless in the local authority’s opinion there are adequate recreational facilities within a close proximity to the site.
15. Notices and Information
(i)    The name of the site shall be displayed on a sign in a prominent position at the entrances to the site together with the current name, address and telephone number of the licence holder and manager and emergency contact details, a copy of the site licence or the front page of the said licence and details of where the full licence and other information required to be available under this standard can be viewed and between which times (if not displayed on the notice board).

(ii)    A current plan of the site with roads and pitches marked on it shall be prominently displayed at the entrances to it.
(iii)    A copy of the current site licence shall be available for inspection in a prominent place on the site.
(iv)    In addition at the prominent place the following information shall also be available for inspection at the prominent place:
(a)    A copy of the most recent periodic electrical inspection report.
(b)    A copy of the site owner’s certificate of public liability insurance.
(c)    A copy of the local flood warning system and evacuation procedures, if appropriate.
(d)    A copy of the fire risk assessment made for the site.
(v)    All notices shall be suitably protected from the weather and from direct sunlight.
16. Flooding
(i)    The site owner shall establish whether the site is at risk from flooding by referring to the Environment Agency’s Flood Map.
(ii)    Where there is risk from flooding the site owner shall consult the Environment Agency for advice on the likelihood of flooding, the depths and velocities that might be expected, the availability of a warning service and on what appropriate measures to take.
17. Requirement to Comply with the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
The site owner shall make available the latest version of the fire risk assessment carried out under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 for inspection by residents and when demanded, a copy of the risk assessment shall be made available to the local authority.
18. Fire safety measures where the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 does not apply (such as single unit sites and those sites solely occupied by family groups)
(i)    The standards in this paragraph only apply if the site is not subject to the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.

Fire Points
(ii)    These shall be located so that no caravan or site building is more than 30 metres from a fire point. Equipment provided at a fire point shall be housed in a weather-proof structure, easily accessible and clearly and conspicuously marked “FIRE POINT”.
Fire Fighting Equipment
(iii)    Where water standpipes are provided:
(a)    The water supply shall be of sufficient pressure to project a jet of water not less than 5 metres from the nozzle.
(b)    There shall be a reel that complies with the current British or European Standard, with a hose not less than 35 metres long, having a means of connection to a water standpipe (preferably a screw thread connection) with a water supply of sufficient pressure and terminating in a small hand nozzle.
(c)    Hoses shall be housed in a red box and marked “HOSE REEL”. Access to the fire point shall not be obstructed or obscured.
(iv)    Where hydrants are provided, hydrants shall conform to the current British or European Standard.
(v)    Access to hydrants and other water supplies shall not be obstructed or obscured.
(vi)    Where standpipes are not provided or the water pressure or flow is not sufficient, each fire point shall be provided with water extinguishers
(2 x 9 litres) which comply with the current British or European Standard.
Fire Warning
(vii)    A suitable means of raising the alarm in the event of a fire shall be provided at each fire point.
Maintenance and Testing of Fire Fighting Equipment
(viii)    All alarm and fire fighting equipment shall be installed, tested and maintained in working order by persons who are qualified in the particular type of work being undertaken and be available for inspection by, or on behalf of, the licensing authority or the Fire and Rescue Service.

(ix)    A record shall be kept of all testing and remedial action taken.
(x)    All equipment susceptible to damage by frost shall be suitably protected.
Fire Notices
(xi)    A clearly written and conspicuous notice shall be provided and maintained at each fire point to indicate the action to be taken in case of fire. This notice should include the following:
“On discovering a fire:
I.    Ensure the caravan or site building involved is evacuated.
II.    Raise the alarm.
III.    Call the fire brigade (the nearest phone is sited at ……..).”

Annex to Model Standards 2008 for Caravan Sites in England: Explanatory Notes
Contents
Paragraphs
Preface        1-4
Legal background    5-11
Introduction    12-20
The Boundaries and Plan of the Site    21-25
Density, Spacing and Parking between caravans    26-34
Roads, Gateways and overhead cables    35-40
Footpaths and pavements    41
Lighting        42
Bases            43-47
Maintenance of Common Areas, including Grass, Vegetation and Trees    48-50
Supply & storage of Gas etc    51-55
Electrical Installations    56-61
Water Supply    62-65
Drainage and sanitation    66-71
Domestic Refuse Storage & Disposal    72-73
Communal Vehicular Parking    74-75
Communal Recreation Space    76-78
Notices & Information    79-81
Flooding        82-85
Fire Safety Measures    86-103

Preface
1.    These explanatory notes are designed to be read in conjunction with Model Standards 2008 for Caravan Sites in England (“the Standards”) and are intended to offer guidance on the application and enforcement of the standards for local authorities.
2.    The standards are a revision and modernisation of the 1989 standards, incorporating a number of new requirements, particularly in relation to maintenance of sites and flood protection measures, other standards have been modified and the standard relating to telephones has been deleted. The standards also take account of the effect of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.
3.    These standards do not apply to sites used exclusively for siting holiday or touring caravans. However, the standards apply to holiday sites containing permanent residential caravans (except those holiday sites where the only permanent residents are the site owner and members of his family and/ or his employees who are employed on the site and occupy the caravan pursuant to their contract of employment). The standards should be applied with due regard to the particular circumstance of the site to which they are intended to apply, including its physical characteristics, size, density, layout, amenities and services. See also paragraph 3 of the Standards document for further advice on the application of the standards.
4.    In this document the term “site owner” is referred to throughout, as normally that person would be the licence holder.
Legal background
5.    The use of land as caravan sites is controlled by relevant planning legislation, whereas the physical standards and layout, amenities and other standards are controlled by a site licence issued under the Caravan Sites and Control of Development Act 1960 (“the Act”). Section 5 of the Act enables local authorities to set licence conditions.
6.    Under the Act, most privately owned sites must be licensed by the local authority, unless exempted under the Act . A licence will be granted unless the applicant does not have relevant planning permission to operate the site or has had a licence revoked in the last three years.

7.    The local authority may attach conditions to the licence, but these can only relate to the physical use of the site and its management . The Secretary of State may issue Model Standards which the local authority must have regard to in deciding what conditions to attach to a licence . The authority may from time to time alter a site licence condition (either of its own volition or upon the application of the licence holder) .
8.    A licence holder may appeal against the imposition of a condition in a licence or any proposed alteration to a condition or a refusal to alter a condition .
9.    It is an offence to breach a licence condition and on summary conviction the offender can currently be fined up to £2,500 . Where a condition requires works to the site to be carried out and these are not done either within the time specified or to satisfaction of the local authority, the authority may carry out the works itself and recover from the licence holder any expenses it has reasonably incurred in doing so .
10.    The local authority may apply to the court to have a licence revoked if the licence holder has been convicted on two or more occasions of breaches of licence conditions .
11.    The local authority is required, under Section 25 of the Act, to maintain an accurate register of the site licences in their area. Given the number of different types of sites that local authorities may deal with, it is recommended that the register shows what type of site each is, be it holiday, residential, mixed use or gypsy and traveller. It is recommended as a minimum the information the site register has is:
•    Name and address of site (if available the Geographic Information Service mapping code should also be logged)
•    Name of the licence holder, the site owner (if different) and any person managing the site on behalf of either of those persons
•    Type of site
•    The number of pitches
•    The licence conditions (if any)

MODEL STANDARDS – EXPLANATORY NOTES
Introduction
12.    The Model Standards 2008 for Caravan Sites in England have been made under powers conferred on the Secretary of State under section 5(6) of the Caravan Sites & Control of Development Act 1960 (the Act). A local authority must have regard to the standards when it imposes conditions in a site licence.
13.    The standards do not apply to sites used solely for caravan holiday homes (although they do apply to mixed residential/ holiday sites), touring caravans or to sites occupied by gypsies and travellers or agricultural workers. The standards as laid out represent what would normally be expected as a matter of good practice on such sites. They should be applied with due regard to the particular circumstances of each case, including the physical character of the site, any facilities or services that may already be available within convenient reach and other local conditions.
14.    The local authority must apply the Model Standards with regard to the particular characteristics of the site to which they are intended to apply, and in particular its existing layout and size. It is recognised that not all sites will easily be able to meet the Model Standards in every case due to their particular characteristics, but a local authority will need to be able to justify any decision not to have regard to a standard in setting a licence condition.
15.    The standards are not intended to be the “ideal”; local authorities may in the circumstances set more demanding ones if that can be justified.
16.    There will be some licence conditions which require inter and cross agency input and advice from other teams within the local authority and outside organisations, such as the Health and Safety Executive, the local Fire and Rescue Service and the Environment Agency. It is important for all parties concerned with sites that effective lines of communication are established to ensure that any problems are identified and resolved as early as possible.
17.    Disability Discrimination legislation applies to sites and this should be borne in mind when framing licence conditions and considering possible enforcement action. Guidance can be found at www.dwp.gov.uk and this can also help local authorities in their consideration of licence conditions. Further guidance can also be found on the Equality and Rights Commission website at www.equalityhumanrights.com .

Enforcement
18.    Any decision to enforce a licence condition should be taken in line with the Compliance Code (ISBN: 978-0-85605-712-0) which came into force in April 2008, for which comprehensive guidance is available on the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform website, www.bre.berr.gov.uk .
19.    Local authorities should allow a reasonable period of time after any site licence alteration for compliance with the revised conditions, unless the reason for making the alteration was to address a matter requiring immediate attention.
20.    When considering taking enforcement action local authorities should undertake a risk assessment to take into account all possible factors in relation to the prosecution.
The Boundaries and Plan of the Site
21.    The boundary should clearly define the limit of the site owner’s responsibility. The boundary should be suitably marked and properly maintained. This boundary could be formed of a fence, hedge, wall or natural feature or any other suitable structure (or any combination of these) or it may in whole, or part, be formed by an appropriate natural feature, such as a river or a wood. It would not normally be appropriate for that natural feature to simply include an open field.
22.    Plans of the site shall be provided to the local authority at the site owners’ expense.
23.    It is best practice for copies of the plan to be made available to the emergency services.
24.    The 3 metre separation distance inside the boundary serves the purpose of ensuring privacy from whatever is on the other side of the boundary, such as a road, and other developments, such as houses etc.
25.    The 3 metre separation distance measurement should be taken from the caravan wall.

Density, Spacing and Parking Between Caravans
26.    The 6 metre separation distance is required for two reasons:
• Health and safety considerations; and
• Privacy from neighbouring caravans.
27.    A diagram explaining the separation distances is attached below.

28.    If a caravan has been fitted with cladding from class 1 fire rated materials, then the distance between units may be reduced. However, there is a need for the privacy of residents to be taken into consideration. Health and safety matters, such as the positioning of gas bottles, etc. will also need to be taken into account.
29.    For the purposes of calculating the distance between the caravans, the point from which measurements are taken is the exterior cladding of the relevant caravan. Eaves, drainpipes, gutters, sills, threshold, door canopies and bay windows should be discounted.
30.    Porches should not render the home incapable of being moved, which means they should be demountable.
31.    If structures, other than garages, are on pitches within the separation distance and are of a combustible construction, then the local authority should consider allowing sufficient time for them to be replaced with an acceptable non combustible model.
32.    At no time should a garage constructed of combustible material be allowed in the separation distance.
Enforcement
33.    In considering the enforcement of the separation distance the local authority should consult with the local Fire and Rescue Service. It should also seek the views and take account of representations from the site owner and affected residents before taking any steps to enforce this standard, where practicable.
34.    Before the local authority undertakes any enforcement action it should consider the benefit of the works against the potential impact on the residents’ enjoyment of their homes and the cost to the site owner.
Roads Gateways and Overhead Cables
35.    Roads should be constructed of bitumen macadam or concrete with suitable compacted base. However, sites with roads constructed of tarmacadam (which is now obsolete and no longer commercially available) should not be required to automatically upgrade their roads. The roads should only be required to be upgraded as and when they begin to fall into disrepair.

36.    Some larger sites may have traffic calming measures such as speed humps on their roads. Though not specifically covered in this standard, it will be worth ensuring that any legal requirements applying to un-adopted roads are met. Guidance and assistance can be found on the Department for Transport website, www.dft.gov.uk .
37.    Gateways, roads and turnings should have enough clearance to allow safe entry for emergency vehicles and new units on lorries. The widths and heights given are based on the maximum sizes of emergency vehicles that may regularly attend incidents on sites.
38.     In determining the permitted height of cable overhangs the local authority must take into account the current statutory requirements. Those applying as at the date of this guidance are found in the Electricity Safety Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002 SI 2002/2665 (ESQCR). These regulations provide that, in general, cables should not overhang a road at a height of less than 5.8 metres. In the case of fully insulated overhead conductors the ground clearance is 3.8 metres. There are a number of exceptions where:
•    The overhead line follows a route along a hedgerow, fences, boundary walls or similar features. The minimum clearance in these circumstances is 4 metres.
•    If it crosses a driveway with an access width of no more than 2.5 metres (and the driveway is defined by gateposts or similar features), the minimum clearance is 4.3 metres.
Further advice on minimum clearances is available from the Health and Safety Executive.
39.     It is good practice that all overhead lines on sites should be fully insulated and where a cable is in within easy reach of a property; it must be so and protected from interference.
40.    The authority should require the site owner to comply with regulation 3 of the ESQCR and in considering any enforcement action in relation to cables must consult with the HSE.
Footpaths and Pavements
41.     Communal path widths should normally be 0.9 metres in respect of new sites or sites that are undergoing substantial redevelopment (including expansion to part of the site); otherwise paths of not less than 0.75 metres should be accepted where they already exist.

Lighting
42.    The lighting provided for communal paths and roads should be adequate to allow safe movement around the site during the hours of darkness. Many sites use low lighters rather than traditional street lamps and these work well as long as they are well maintained and plants/vegetation are not allowed to grow around them and stop them emitting light effectively. The lighting must be fit for purpose i.e. to allow vehicles and pedestrians to navigate around the site between dusk and dawn.
Bases
43.    It is important to note that the construction, maintenance and repair of the concrete base are the responsibility of the site owner. New bases should be laid as a minimum in accordance with the current industry guidelines issued by the National Park Homes Council and the British Holiday and Home Parks Association. The Industry’s current standard for the bases provides:
“A hard core base to a minimum depth of 150 mm, well consolidated and topped with 100 mm of concrete (mix as BS8500-2:2006 ) shall be used. The finished raft must be generally level with due allowance for surface drainage. Where the ground conditions so require, thickening or the introduction of reinforcement of the raft may be necessary.”
44.    Particular attention should be paid to the terrain of the site before a base is laid, which may mean a thicker base is needed. The base should be sufficient to handle the load placed upon it by the caravan and its contents.
Enforcement
45.    When considering any enforcement action, the authority should also seek the views and take account of representations from the site owner and affected residents before taking any steps to enforce this standard, where practicable.
46.    Before the local authority undertakes any enforcement action it should consider the benefit of the works against the potential impact on the residents’ enjoyment of their homes and the cost to the site owner.
47.    Where a caravan has to be removed in order to facilitate works to the base the authority should normally, if it is feasible and if it is the resident’s wish, require the site owner to reinstate, at his own expense, the caravan on the original pitch on completion of the works.

Maintenance of Common Areas, including Grass, Vegetation and Trees
48.    Cut grass and vegetation should be removed from the site as soon as practicable. Bonfires should not be used as a means of disposal. Vegetation is often used for sight screening but should be kept at a reasonable height.
49.    Trees on the site will normally be the responsibility of the site owner. Where trees are in need of care and maintenance the local authority should, before any action is taken, liaise with the officer responsible for trees at the authority to ensure that all statutory and other requirements are complied with.
50.    The common parts of the site (including roads, paths and pavements) must be kept free of any rubbish and maintained in a clean and tidy condition. The local authority may wish to consider whether appropriate receptacles for litter need to be provided in such areas. In any case the site owner should be required to make arrangement for the regular collection of routine rubbish from the site. He should also be required to make arrangements for the prompt disposal of waste and other materials which accumulate on the site during any works etc. Secure non combustible facilities should be provided on the site for the proper storage of rubbish and waste prior to its removal and disposal off the site.
Supply and Storage of Gas etc
51.    The HSE website, www.hse.gov.uk, provides details and information about the various legislative requirements and contacts if further information is needed. In addition the trade body for LPG suppliers, uklpg, www.lpga.co.uk, also has information which may be of use.
52.    Anyone being employed by a site owner to carry out work on gas (including natural gas) or oil installations should be suitably qualified to do the work. The HSE pages contain details of some of the schemes. The Communities and Local Government website contains details of various certification schemes which may apply. The details of these schemes can be found at www.communities.gov.uk  .
Enforcement
53.    In considering whether to take enforcement action for a breach of site licence conditions officers should liaise with the Health and Safety Executive to ensure any action taken by the authority is not in conflict with any action the HSE are proposing to take.

54.    Local authority officials who identify areas of concern on sites should always consult the HSE about the problem(s).
55.    All new installations must be to the current regulations and maintained at that standard.
Electrical Installations
56.    The electrical installations on the site will be a distributor’s network either belonging to the local regional electricity network operator or the owner of the site. The HSE website: www.hse.gov.uk contains information on the electricity legislation which may well apply to the site and can provide further information if needed.
57.    A suitably qualified person for the purpose of carrying out work on electrical installations and appliances, including maintenance and inspections, includes a professionally qualified electrical engineer, a member of the Electrical Contractors Association, a contractor approved by the National Inspection Council for Electrical Installations Contracting, or a qualified person acting on behalf of the above.
58.    It may be necessary to ensure the electricity distribution network complies with ESQCR, in which case such work should only be undertaken by a competent person familiar with those Regulations.
59.    All new installations must meet the requirements of the current regulations and maintained at that standard.
Enforcement
60.    In considering whether to take enforcement action for a breach of site licence conditions, officers should liaise with the Health and Safety Executive to ensure any action taken by the authority is not in conflict with any action the HSE are proposing to take.
61.    Local authority officials who identify significant areas of concern with site electrical networks and installations should always consult the HSE about the problem(s).

Water Supply
62.    OFWAT lay down service standards for the water suppliers and details can be found on their website at www.ofwat.gov.uk . In addition there are various schemes for suitably qualified persons and authorities should check to see those undertaking works are qualified. The main scheme is run by NIC certification and details can be found about the scheme at www.niccertification.com .
Enforcement
63.    With the majority of well established sites, enforcement of this section will need to be carefully handled, as most sites will have long established water systems. As with gas and electricity above, there may be a case for dual enforcement if an offence is identified. Consultation with the Environment Agency and the local water company is essential.
64.    As with the previous sections, local authority officers who identify an issue with water supply on a particular site may wish to advise the Environment Agency, and the local water company of the problem.
65.    All new installations must be to the current regulations and maintained at the appropriate standard.
Drainage and Sanitation
66.    As with water supplies, provision of sewerage facilities is overseen by OFWAT and codes of practice are in place.
67.    It is important that all drains and sewers are well maintained and are connected to the appropriate system. If left unchecked, there can be consequences for the health of residents, along with those who live near the site.
68.    It should be noted that the environmental quality of drainage is regulated by the Environment Agency, with whom the local authority must consult about any problems.
Enforcement
69.    In considering whether to take enforcement action for a breach of site licence conditions officers should liaise with the Environment Agency to ensure any action taken by the authority is not in conflict with any action the Agency are proposing to take.

70.    Local authority officials who identify areas of concern on sites should alert the Environment Agency and the local water company to the possible defects.
71.    All new installations must be to the current regulations and maintained at that standard.
Domestic Refuse Storage and Disposal
72.    If communal bins are provided they should be of a type that is non-combustible and stored properly. Liaison with colleagues who deal with refuse collection matters will help in ensuring that the bins provided by the site owner (in the case of communal bins) are acceptable to the local authority in pursuance of its collection of rubbish from them.
73.    The site owner should be required to discuss with the local authority arrangements for the separation of waste for the purpose of recycling it, and require him to provide the necessary receptacles etc on the site.
Communal Vehicular Parking
74.    Parking needs will vary considerably between individual parks. Parking requirements should reflect the reasonable needs of the residents, having regard to the size and layout of the site, the number of units, the occupation criteria of the site and the availability of public transport in the immediate vicinity.
75.    Provision of parking spaces on new sites or those undergoing redevelopment or extension should be consistent with local planning policies.
Communal Recreation Space
76.    This standard should only be applied if the local authority is satisfied that it is both practicable to provide recreation space on the site and there is insufficient recreation space off the site in the near locality.
77.    It will only be practicable to provide such space on the site if there is sufficient open space which is available and it is possible to safely use that space for recreation. The standard requires the local authority to consider the need for recreation space; it does not require it to consider the need for recreation facilities, although the local authority may consider that need as part of a licence condition. The larger the site the more recreation space or spaces may

be needed. On small sites there may be no need for space at all. In deciding whether it is practicable to provide the space the authority should also consider the site layout, the availability of private open spaces (e.g. within the pitch), the availability of other amenities on the site (e.g. club houses) and the age and number of residents on the site.
78.    On site recreation space may be considered unnecessary if there is sufficient suitable space available off site within close (walking) distance of it. The space must, however, be freely accessible by the public, such as a municipal park, commons land, and greens or any part of the countryside to which the public have a right to walk.
Notices and Information
79.    It is important that all notices are protected from the weather and are prominently displayed, either on a board, in an office open to the public, or other places on the site which the residents have free and reasonable access to.
80.    The notices must include the most recent site licence, and the contact details of the site manager, and if different the licence holder. This should include an out of hours contact number for emergencies, and if available an e-mail address.
81.    The site owner is also required to make available certain information for inspection by residents in a prominent position on the site. That could be the site office provided it is open at reasonable times, a community room which every resident was entitled to use and which is also open at reasonable sites or a notice board located at the entrance to or in a central part of the site.
Flooding
82.    It is important that if a site is in an area susceptible to flooding, procedures are in place to ensure that all those on the site are alerted quickly, and that they are aware of any evacuation procedures that may be in place. A notice should be prominently displayed with all relevant information.

83.    The site should be included in any local authority flood evacuation plan.
84.    Advice on flood risks is available from the Environment Agency website: www.environment-agency.gov.uk
85.    It is important in those parts of the country where flooding is an issue that local authorities have effective liaison with the Environment Agency office for their area, as well as relevant officials across their own local authority. Local water companies should also be contacted.
Fire Safety Measures
86.    The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (the Order) applies to caravan sites. The Order disapplies some fire related standards that may be in current site licensing conditions. It applies to all non domestic premises in England and Wales, including certain types of caravan sites:
•    all sites with common or shared parts; and
•    individual caravans which are holiday-let type i.e. they are rented out
87.    On such sites the local authority should advise the ‘responsible person’, who will be the licence holder of his duty under that Order to undertake a fire risk assessment and decide what prevention and protection arrangements are appropriate and adequate to mitigate the identified risks.
88.    However, there are some sites around the country which do not fall under the Order. These may include single unit sites and those sites which are occupied by single family groups.
89.    Where the Order applies the authority should satisfy itself that the site owner is aware of, and complying with, his obligations under it, in particular that a fire risk assessment has been carried out. In this regard the local authority should seek the advice of the local Fire and Rescue Service who are the main enforcers of the Order.
90.    The Communities and Local Government website:
www.communities.gov.uk contains a range of helpful information on fire safety and the requirements of the Fire Safety Order. This includes links to technical guides for specific types of accommodation, including one for sleeping accommodation.

91.    The Fire and Rescue Service has a duty to provide fire safety advice to those who ask for it, although it will not carry out risk assessments.
92.    In applying any standards relating to fire safety measures where the Order does not apply, the local authority must consult the local Fire and Rescue Service.
Fire Fighting Equipment
93.    The Guidance under the remaining sections only applies to sites to which the Order does not apply; however these standards will provide a useful benchmark of the sort of preventative and protective measures that may be necessary following completion of a fire risk assessment.
94.    The siting of the fire points should be so that they are visible at all times, and marked in a way that makes it obvious as to what they are. They will need to be kept clear of any obstructions at all times should they be needed in the event that a fire breaks out.
95.    Fire Points are the places on sites where fire fighting equipment is stored, ready for use by anyone in the event of an emergency.
96.    If hosepipes are provided, they should be of the relevant British and European Standards , and positioned in such a way that they are easily attachable to the mains water supply, if not permanently attached. Any valves connecting the hose to the water supply should be easily accessible. The hose reel should be well maintained and in good working order.
97.    Any hydrants provided on the site should be kept clear of any obstruction in the event that they need to be used. The positioning of mains connected hydrants is the responsibility of the local water company, and any queries as to whether a site has a hydrant should be directed to them. The positioning of the hydrants should be recorded on the site map, which will assist the emergency service in locating them in the event of an emergency.
98.    Fire Extinguishers should only be used if there is not enough water pressure for a hose reel. Where provided, extinguishers should comply with the current British or European Standard.

99.    A water tank with buckets and a pump should not be the main means of fighting fire for the following reasons:
•    Pumps and buckets are likely to be vandalised or stolen.
•    Pumps and buckets are inadequate for fighting a fire.
•    A water storage tank should be securely covered to prevent it becoming a health or safety hazard.
Fire Warning
100.    The means of raising the alarm in the event of a fire should be appropriate to the size and layout of the site. If you are unsure of which form of raising the alarm is the most suitable to the site, then contact the local Fire and Rescue Service, who will be able to advise you.
Maintenance and Testing of Fire Fighting Equipment
101.    It is important that all fire warning systems and fire fighting equipment are regularly inspected and maintained. The suggestion is that these checks should be carried out on an annual basis. All testing and maintenance should be carried out by a person suitably qualified to do the work. Records should be kept of any testing and when the most recent inspections were carried out. The record of all tests and inspections should be kept on the site for inspection.
Fire Notices
102.    The fire action notice should be displayed on a notice board, and at other suitable points around the site. The full address of the site, including the postcode should be included.
Enforcement
103.    The main enforcer for the Order is the Fire and Rescue Service.

ISBN: 978 1 8511 29102